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A Critique of Douglas Theobald’s

“29 Evidences for Macroevolution”

    by Ashby Camp
Part 1  
© 2024 Ashby L. Camp.  All Rights Reserved.

. . . Earth’s crammed with heaven,
And every common bush afire with God:
But only he who sees, takes off his shoes,
The rest sit round it, and pluck blackberries,
And daub their natural faces unaware
More and more, from the first similitude.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh VII.821-22

NOTE:  The paper critiqued in this article was subsequently changed by Mr. Theobald, who also published a criticism of this article—and changed it too, after Mr. Camp responded.  Neither this article, nor Mr. Camps response to Theobalds criticism, have been altered to accommodate Mr. Theobolds on-going adjustments and modifications.

I am convinced that various groups of organisms had an independent, nonevolutionary origin.  More specifically, I believe the founding members of these groups were created miraculously and separately by God.  Douglas Theobald, on the other hand, is convinced that all organisms (except the first) descended from a single, original species.

In “29 Evidences for Macroevolution,” Dr. Theobald sets forth the evidence that he believes proves scientifically that all organisms share the same biological ancestor.  In this critique, I argue that his evidence is insufficient to establish that proposition.


Part 1. One True Phylogenetic Tree

  1. Fundamental unity of life
  2. Nested hierarchy of species organization
  3. Independent convergence on true phylogeny
  4. Morphology of common ancestors
  5. Chronology of common ancestors

Part 2. Past History

  1. Anatomical vestigial structures
  2. Molecular vestigial structures
  3. Ontogeny and developmental biology
  4. Present biogeography
  5. Past biogeography

Part 3. Evolutionary Opportunism

  1. Anatomical paralogy
  2. Molecular paralogy
  3. Anatomical convergence
  4. Molecular convergence
  5. Anatomical suboptimal function
  6. Molecular suboptimal function

Part 4. Molecular Evidence

  1. Functional evidence—protein redundancy
  2. Functional evidence—DNA redundancy
  3. Transposons
  4. Pseudogenes
  5. Endogenous retroviruses

Part 5. Change

  1. Genetic
  2. Morphological
  3. Functional
  4. The strange past
  5. Stages of speciation
  6. Speciation events
  7. Morphological rates
  8. Genetic rates


Part 6. Bibliography

      Part 1  

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